Bihar Sharif

Bihar Sharif is the headquarters of Nalanda district and the fifth-largest sub-metropolitan area in the eastern Indian state of Bihar. Its name is a combination of two words: Bihar, derived from Buddha vihara, also the name of the state; and Sharif for the resting place of Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri. The city is a hub of education and trade in south Bihar, and the economy centers around agriculture supplemented by tourism and household manufacturing.

Under the Pala Empire, a major Buddhist monastic university was built at the site of Bihar Sharif. It eventually became the capital of Magadha, and then part of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the late 12th century, though local Rajputs soon re-established effective control. In the early 14th century, it was permanently captured by the Delhi Sultanate. Bihar Sharif was later ruled by other Muslim dynasties and then the British until Indian independence in 1947. The city has important Jain, Buddhist, Hindu and Muslim heritage and landmarks.

Bihar Sharif is one of the hundred Indian cities competing to gain funds under Narendra Modi‘s flagship Smart Cities Mission. Bihar Sharif will be competing for one of the last 10 spots against 20 cities from across India.

History

Pre-Islamic period

The name Bihar is derived from vihar or vihara, meaning Buddhist monastery, a reference to the ancient Odantapuri University established near the city in the 7th century CE by Palaking Gopala I. The settlement does, however, predate the Buddha. It became the capital of the Magadha kingdom from the rule of the Pala Empire. Odantapuri is considered to have been the second oldest of India’s Mahaviharas, and it was located at the foot of Bari Pahari (English: Big Hill). According to Tibetian records it had about 12,000 students there and was an important centre of Buddhist learning. Acharya Sri Ganga of Vikramashila was a student there.

Delhi Sultanate era

In 1193, during the time of Ikhtiyar ad-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji‘s conquest of Bihar, he came to conquer Nalanda castle which was, in fact, Nalanda University. En route to Nalanda, he allegedly damaged the Buddhist monasteries of a place now called Bakhtiyarpur. He then came to Vihar, where he completely destroyed Odantapuri University, which his spies thought was a castle, and the Buddhist viharas before leaving for Nalanda. A few years after Khilji’s departure, local Bundela Rajputs regained control of the city from its Muslim rulers. Bundela Rajputs then ruled the area until the reign of Raja Biththal, remaining autonomous for all practical purposes despite nominal control from Delhi.

Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq (r. 1324–1351 CE) then sent Syed Ibrahim Mallick with an army of Afghans to conquer the Magadha region. After a fierce battle, the outnumbered Raja army was defeated and Raja Biththal was killed. The conquest of Bihar was a major achievement for Delhi, and on this occasion the Sultan conferred upon Syed Ibrahim Mallick the title of “Madarul Mulk”, after which he was called “Mallick Baya”. He was then appointed governor of Bihar by the Sultan, and he ruled over the region until his assassination in 1353 CE. Descendants of the Bundela Rajputs are now settled in Tungi village and Garhpar in Bihar Sharif.

Later history

After the Delhi Sultanate, the first Sur emperor, Sher Shah Suri (r. 1540–1545 CE), moved the regional capital to Patliputra (modern-day Patna), and the whole Magadha region came to be called Bihar.

In 1867, the city was officially declared a municipality.[2]

Tensions between the city’s two main religious communities, Hindus and Muslims, simmered from the time of the 1947 partition of India. On 30 April and 1 May 1981, these boiled over into major violence in the city and surrounding villages, in which an estimated 150 to 200 Muslim were killed by mobs. The immediate reason was an attempt by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, a Hindu national militia) to create communal rather than class identity for political purposes. In the aftermath, 550 people were arrested including five high-ranking RSS members.[4]

Heritage and important sites

The city has many artefacts and relics of Buddhist and Jain heritage. (Mahavira, often regarded as the founder of Jainism, is said to have attained Nirvana at the nearby town of Pawapuri.) Broken idols of Buddha and Mahavira can be found in the Nalanda Museum and in many temples. Nalanda College in Bihar Sharif and the locality of Garhpar have Buddhist monasteries. The ruins at Nalanda are 13 km (8.1 mi) from Bihar Sharif.[citation needed] There is also a notable pillar in Bihar Sharif dating to the 5th century at the time of the Gupta empire.[2]

Another notable site in the city is the Langot Fair at Baba Maniram Akhara; the Akhara of Sant Maniram was founded by Raja Biththal to train youth in fighting. The mausoleum of Syed Ibrahim Mallick was initially a temple constructed by Pala King Gopala, the founder of Odantpuri University, where thousands of Brahmins were brutally killed by Ibrahim Mallick; the temple was then reshaped as mosque. Badi Dargah, the shrine of the Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri, is located near the ruins of Odantapuri. He is credited with converting many Hindus in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal, Nawada, Jamui and Sheikhpura, and many Muslims celebrate Urs at the shrine each year in the month of Shawwal on the hijri calendar.

Geography

Bihar Sharif is located 74 km (46 mi) from Patna, the capital of Bihar state (via NH 30 and 31). It is situated at the foot of Badi Pahari (a.k.a. Hiranya Parbat) and on the bank of the Panchanan River. The land around Bihar Sharif is very fertile, with alluvial soil deposited by several rivers. These local rivers include the Mahane, the Panchanan – which divides west of Pawapuri into the Goithwa, Soyaba and smaller rivers – the Zerain, and others.[citation needed] To the west is the Paimar River, a tributary of the Ganges.[2]

Economy

Agriculture is the main economic activity of Bihar Sharif, with crops including cauliflower, potato, mustard seed and other vegetables, which are sold to neighbouring states. Tourism to nearby sites like NalandaRajgir and Pawapuri also boosts the city’s economy considerably, as do footwear and garments manufactured by household industries.[clarification needed]

As of 1981, the city had a major beedi cigarette industry which employed 15,000 people, mainly Muslims and some lower-caste Hindus.[4]

In recent years the city has changed from a trade-based economy to an education hub. Various schools and coaching centres are a new symbol of awareness about education among people in the surrounding rural areas.

Bihar Sharif was one of three cities selected in Bihar state to be among the 100 Indian cities developed as smart cities under Prime Minister Narendra Modi‘s flagship Smart Cities Mission.[5] It was not included in the first twenty cities to receive funding.[6]

Demographics

As of the 2011 India census, Bihar Sharif had a population of 297,268,[7] up from 231,972 in 2001[8] and around 130,000 in 1981.[4] The sex ratio was 916 females per 1000 males, with a slightly higher ratio of 927 females per 1,000 males among children.[7] The overall literacy rate was 75.30%, with male literacy at 80.80% and female literacy at 69.28%.[7]Caste groups with significant populations include the Kurmi, Koyri, Yadav, and Baniyas. Most Muslims speak Urdu and belong to the Sunni Hanafi denomination. The Koyri and Baniya are old settlers[vague] while others have moved from villages around the city.[when?][citation needed]

Religion

Religions in Bihar Sharif
Religion     Percent  
Hindus   65.86%
Muslims   33.59%
Christians   0.17%
Jains   0.01%
Others†   0.36%
Distribution of religions
†Includes Sikhs (0.01%), Buddhists (0.01%).

According to the 2011 census, 65.86% of the city’s population identifies as Hindu, 33.59% identifies as Muslim, 0.34% did not answer the census question, 0.17% identifies as Christian, and fewer than fifty identified with each of the other religious groups on the survey.[7] A 1981 report lists a 48% proportion of Muslims and notes this as unusual for the area.[4]

In 2012, plans were announced for the construction of a local Bahá’í House of Worship in Bihar Sharif.[10] This would be only the second House of Worship for India’s nearly two million Bahá’ís[11] (the first being the well-known Lotus Temple in Delhi),[12] and one of the first two local Bahá’í Houses of Worship in Asia (the other being in BattambangCambodia).[10]

Transport

The city is connected by road to major cities like PatnaRajgirNalandaHarnautJamshedpurRanchiDhanbadKodermaKolkataGayaHazaribagJahanabadBakhtiyarpurBarh, and Ramgarh. Being the district headquarters, it has a regular bus service to all major hubs in the region.

Bihar Sharif Junction is on the BakhtiyarpurTilaiya line, part of the national broad gauge network. The city is served by the Shramjeevi Express, a direct daily superfast train to New Delhi. There are also numerous passenger and express connections to the state capital, Patna, and to the hub at Rajgir which connects to many destinations in the country. Very recently, the Fatuha–Islampur branch line has been connected to this route. The extension of passenger services to link Bihar Sharif with HilsaSheikhpura and Gaya began in 2013.

The nearest airport is Patna Airport, with carriers operating domestic flights to major Indian cities.

 

Nalanda At a Glance

DISTRICT AT A GLANCE
Nalanda, is famous all over the world for the the ancient International Monastic University established in 5th century BC, which taught Vedas, Logic, Grammar, Medicine, Meta-Physics, Prose Composition and Rhetoric. Nalanda district is popularly known as Biharsharif. The rivers Phalgu, and Mohane flows through the district of Nalanda. The various sub divisions of the district are Biharsharif Rajgir , and Hilsa. The district is divided into blocks of Giriyak, Rahui, Nursarai, Harnaut, Chandi, Islampur, Rajgir, Asthawan, Sarmera, Hilsa, Biharsharif, Ekangarsarai, Ben, Nagarnausa, Karaiparsurai, Silao, Parwalpur, Katrisarai, Bind, and Tharthari. It is spread over the area of 2,367 sq. kms. The total population of the district is 19,97,995.

Agriculture is the main source of occupation. The farmers mainly grow paddy, apart from it they grow Potato, and Onion. Few people of the district are also involved in handloom weaving. Since the district is a famous tourist destination, tourism plays a vital role in the economy of Nalanda. 

HQ Biharsharif (known as Nalanda district)
Area 2,367 sq. kms.
Population Total 23,68,327 Males 12,36,467 Females 11,31,860
Population Density 1006 per sq km
Sex Ratio 915
Sub Divisions Biharsharif, Rajgir, Hilsa.
Blocks Giriyak, Rahui, Nursarai, Harnaut, Chandi, Islampur, Rajgir, Asthawan, Sarmera, Hilsa, Biharsharif, Ekangarsarai, Ben, Nagarnausa, Karaiparsurai, Silao, Parwalpur, Katrisarai, Bind, Tharthari.
Agriculture Rich Paddy Fields, Potato, Onion.
Industry Handloom weaving.
Rivers Phalgu, Mohane.

Details of  Sub-divisions, Anchal, Halkas and Revenue Villages:

S.No  Revenue Division  No. of Anchals No. of Halkas No. of Revenue Villages
1. Bihar Sharif 7 51 429
2. Hilsa 8 22 198
3. Rajgir 5 46 457
    Total 20 119 1084

Details of Local Bodies:

The detailed account regarding the number of the local bodies is as below:

Sl. No. Classification of Municipal and Local Bodies Number
1. Corporation 1
2. Blocks 20
3. Nagar Panchayats 4
4. Village Panchayat 249


The popular heritage sites of Nalanda district are as follows:

    • Nalanda University Archaeological Complex
  • Nalanda Archaeological Museum
  • Hieun Tsiang Memorial Hall
  • Pawapuri jal mandir
  • Vishwa Shanti Stupa
  • Griddhakoot Hill
  • Bimbisara Jail
  • Maniyar Math
  • Sone Bhandar
  • Jarasandh Ki Baithak Pippala Cave
  • Saptaparni Cave
  • Ajatshatru Stupa
  • Fortification Walls
    • Venuvana Vihara

      Famous institutes of Nalanda district are:

  • Nav Nalanda Mahavihara 
  • Micro Computer Institute
  • Sainik School Nalanda
  • Nalanda College

Courses Under KYP

The current syllabus is as follows, which may undergo up-gradation in near future.

This course offers communication and language skills that include:

  • Speaking, Listening, Understanding, Reading and Writing in English and Hindi
  • Vocabulary, Sentence construction, Grammar, Pronunciation, Quality of Communication (Fluency, Emphasis, Pace, Clarity, etc.), Voice (Intonation, Pitch, Modulation, etc.)
  • Non Verbal Communication

Following are the modules in the course:

  1. Home, Surroundings and Routine
  2. Greetings
  3. Friends, Family and Relatives
  4. Food
  5. Health and hygiene
  6. Telling Time and Giving directions
  7. News
  8. Making Enquiries
  9. Communicating at common public places
  10. Helping and offering services
  11. Getting Ready for Work
  12. Telephonic Conversation
  13. Sharing thoughts with Others
  14. Using references like Dictionary and Thesaurus
  15. Communication in cyber world
  16. Interview Techniques
  17. Meetings at workplace
  18. Workplace ethics
  19. Customer Service
  20. Safety

MCI Educational Group

MCI is one of the leading computer education organizations in Bihar (India). It was established in the year 2001, as a group of excellence in COMPUTER EDUCATION & IT FieldMCI An autonomous institution registered under Directorate of Ind., Govt. of Bihar Reg. No. 032405622/2001-02, having its divisions and chapters at various locations to cater the growing need of capacity building of individuals in the areas of computer application, information technology, multimedia, software engineering, e-commerce and other IT enabled systems and services. MCI educational movement is rapidly establishing a distinctive place among the educational institutions of this region. The institute has committed for delivery of high quality courses.

MCI Services the result of a unique partnership between the MCI Educational GroupMicro Computer Instituteand Kidz Care Play School Established in 2005, it is the first government Reg.-private initiative in the region. It was set up with the objective of providing the best in education for students. MCI Educational Group formed on 15th December 2005 as a unit of a registered society registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860, Govt. of Bihar, has been established in 2004 and affiliated for higher education under recognised universities.
MCI Educational Group has the following constituent institutions:
Micro Computer Institute for Computer Education . (MCI)
Kidz Care Play School for P.G to Std. 8th. (KCPS)
MCI Services for Higher Education.
Centre of Competitive Examinations. (CCE)
School of Basic & Applied Sciences
As ranked by Local Review MCI Educational Group is ranked 1st. amongst the Best Institution of this category.

Kushal Yuva Program

The Bihar Skill Development Mission (BSDM) has launched a unique skill training programme by the name of “Kushal Yuva Program” which would enhance the employability Skills of all aspirants in the age group of 15-25 years (Age limit for SC/ST, OBC & People with Disabilities is as follows: SC/ST – 30 years, OBC – 28 years, PwD – 30 years), who have passed at least 10th Class irrespective of their having attained higher education or their currently pursuing higher education. Soft Skills training would comprise of Life skills, Communications Skills (English & Hindi) and Basic computer literacy which in turn would enhance their employability and act as a value add to the various domain specific training endeavours currently being implemented in Bihar.

As on 8th July 2017, the total admissions have crossed 1,12,000 and the number of approved center have crossed 1100. We started this journey with 48 centers and 1978 learners on 16th December 2016. Currently, approved centers cover 494 out of 534 blocks across all the 38 districts of Bihar. Our target is to cover each and every block of Bihar. The new empanelment process is open for 284 blocks only which currently have less than the required number of centers.

Last year for Kushal Yuva Skill Development Center (SDC) Registration 2016 we received an overwhelming response from organizations and we could able to establish 1100+ centers in the state of Bihar. At the end of this process, it was analyzed by Bihar Skill Development Mission (BSDM) that based on the number of candidates registered from each block and district and the growth of candidates registration that BSDM will require additional centers in only 284 blocks. However, based on further analysis of the requirement, we may add certain more blocks, before the last date of application, in which we will consider new applications and it will be informed through this website. So it is requested that all interested organizations, individuals before applying for registration, please go through the block list and apply for KYP SDC only in the blocks given in the list.